Transcribed from video.
Mah Shi Min, a physiotherapist from Sengkang Health introduces herself, as well as Mr Lee and Mr Ong, who have Parkinson's disease. Mr Ong will perform the simpler, modified exercises.
Living with Parkinson, you may experience some difficulty with balance. Balance re-training should be incorporated into your exercise programme. Balance training three times a week can help to reduce risk of falls as well as improve your balance.
Before you begin, here are some tips on how to exercise safely:
Firstly, we will have Mr Lee demonstrate these standing exercises. These should be done in a safe and comfortable manner.
Stand upright facing a chair or a table.
Standing with your feet shoulder width apart. Hold for 30 seconds.
Stand with your feet together. Keep your body up upright. Hold for 30 seconds.
Now, Stand with one foot in front of the other, so your heel and toe are in line, keep your body upright and maintain your balance. Try to look straight ahead. Hold for 30 seconds.
Repeat with the other foot in front.
You can progress this exercise into a dynamic one.
Choose a spot ahead of you and focus on it to keep you steady as you walk by placing your heel just in front of the toe of your other foot.
Repeat for 20 steps.
Raise one leg so you are balancing on your opposite side. Hold for 10 seconds.
Repeat with the other leg. As you feel steadier, you can balance for a longer time.
For patients whose balance are more severely affected, you may follow the modified version which Mr Ong is demonstrating, using a step board.
Now, we will move on to a series of dynamic balance exercises that involve maintaining your balance whilst moving your body.
Stand with feet shoulder width apart.
Slowly shift your weight to the right as far as possible, without taking a step.
Return to starting position. Then repeat to the left side.
Hold each position for 3 seconds. Repeat 10 times.
Stand with your back against the wall with your feet some distance away.
Pull your body away from the wall using your leg strength, until your body is upright.
Slowly move your hips backwards until it touches the wall again then move your upper body to touch the wall. Your toes should lift up slightly during movement.
Repeat 10 times.
Now, we move onto a series of dynamic balance exercises that involve maintaining your balance whilst moving your feet.
Take a step sideways with one leg, followed by the other leg.
Continue walking sideways for 10 steps.
Repeat in other direction.
Mr Ong is demonstrating a modified version of the exercise.
Step back leading with your toes, followed by your heel. Repeat on the other leg.
Continue for 10 steps.
Stand close to a stable support. Place one foot on step and then place it back on the ground.
Repeat with the other leg.
Continue for 10 steps while alternating between legs.
Next, we will practice taking a quick saving step, which is what needs to happen automatically if you trip or overbalance. For example, if you trip forward, you need to take a quick step forward to prevent falling over.
Slowly shift your weight as far forwards or sideways as possible, then take a quick step forward.
Hold balance in this position for 3 seconds, then return to start position.
Repeat 5 times.
In this instance, Mr Ong is performing a forward saving step, whereas Mr Lee is performing a side saving step.
Now we will move onto the final series of challenging dynamic balance exercises. These should only be attempted if you can do all the previous exercises without difficulty.
Place 2 objects about 2m apart on the floor. Walk in a figure of eight pattern and maintain your balance.
Practice walking for 2 minutes while performing one of the following tasks:
For dual tasking, primary attention should be on balancing and walking, with all other activities as secondary tasks.
Stop if balance or gait pattern is affected.
If you have Parkinson's disease and have not been referred to a neurological physiotherapist for rehabilitation, you can obtain a referral from your neurologist.
You can find neurological physiotherapists in all acute hospitals.
Remember, it is never too late to start exercising. Begin today and enjoy its benefits! If you have already been exercising daily, keep up the great work!
Transcribed from video.
Did you know that 20% of adults suffer from joint pain, also known as osteoarthritis (OA)?
Osteoarthritis isn't just caused by ageing but also by factors such as:
Symptoms you may experience include:
To prevent osteoarthritis, follow these simple tips.
For more health tips and videos, visit our HealthXchange portal and SingHealth YouTube channel - your trusted source, for health and medical information.
The condition is called Sarcoma and although it is rare, it affects a wide range of age groups – from young patients to the elderly adults.
Sarcomas comprise 1% of all adult cancer types, with the
National Cancer Centre Singapore seeing more than 180 new sarcoma patients annually.
Sarcomas can generally be classified into 4 major types:
In this episode, we will be talking about soft tissue sarcomas and GIST, short for gastrointestinal stromal tumours.
Patients with soft tissue sarcomas generally present with a large painless abdominal mass. In some cases, they may have no symptoms and have this mass picked up as an incidental finding when doing an investigation for unrelated conditions and symptoms.
Often, after a complete history taking and thorough physical examination, it is still difficult to find the diagnosis. Further imaging via a CT scan or an MRI scan is required to determine where this tumour is from and exactly what kind of tumour it is.
Sometimes, a diagnosis can only be attained if a biopsy is performed. This can be done via one of two methods:
Very often, the procedure would not take very long and may just be a few hours. After the procedure, the patient is usually asked to stay for the day or overnight and can be discharged the next day if there are no complications.
In some patients, radiotherapy to the operated site may be required 4 to 6 weeks after surgery to prevent recurrence there.
This is especially so if the tumour was large or is of an aggressive type.
Another kind of sarcoma is called Gastrointestinal stromal tumour or GIST for short. This condition generally arises from the tissues of the stomach, the small intestine or in the large intestine, like the colon or rectum.
Patients with GIST may not have any symptoms at all, or they may present with a mass that they have palpated. They may also have symptoms as a result of obstruction or blockage caused by this mass. In this situation, the patient usually experiences fullness after eating or they may have discomfort, distention and even vomiting, as a result of obstruction by this mass.
Patients with GIST are often treated by surgery, especially if the tumours are confined to an organ. The surgery's main goal is to remove the whole tumour, along with the organ that is involved. It is important to ensure that no tumour is left behind and clear margins are attained.
After surgery, we give chemotherapy to some patients with GIST, to prevent cancer relapse. This form of chemotherapy is administered orally and targets the abnormal protein causing the cancer. This treatment not only delays relapse but also improves survival.
Other more common forms of sarcoma who may require preventive chemotherapy include osteosarcoma (bone sarcoma) and Ewing sarcoma.
We have come to the end of part one of our sarcoma series. Please join us for part two, where we will be talking about bone sarcomas and Ewing sarcomas.
To learn more about sarcoma, you can contact the
National Cancer Centre Singapore at 6436 8000 or visit
Written for children aged 8-12, this beautifully-illustrated book brings young readers on a journey through the major parts of a hospital stay.