​A stroke can strike in an instant and change your life forever.

Knowing the signs of stroke and calling 995 for an emergency ambulance will help to improve your recovery.

But the best way to avoid disability from stroke is to prevent the stroke from happening!

Quitting smoking and taking care of your health, such as controlling high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol and diabetes will reduce your risk of stroke.

Dr Sumit Kumar Sonu, Associate Consultant, and his colleagues from the Department of Neurology at National Neuroscience Institute (NNI), a member of the SingHealth group, will be answering your questions on stroke in this month’s ‘Ask the Specialist’ Q&A forum.

This 'Ask the Specialist' forum has closed. Thank you for your interest and participation.

1. Posted by C*****
If an individual have Hypertension, High Cholesterol & very Bad Chronic Migraine, is the person predispose or at a higher risk to get a Stroke?

Answered by Dr Sumit :
Hi C*****,
We can group all the stroke risk factors into ‘non-modifiable’ and ‘modifiable’.
Non-modifiable risk factors are those that we are unable to control.

For example:
1.Age – Increasing age has greater risk of having a stroke. 
2.Gender – Males are usually at greater risk than females. 
3.Personal or family history of stroke – Those who have had a stroke or a family history of stroke are at greater risk than those who do not.

But there are more modifiable risk factors that we can control including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, High LDL cholesterol, atrial fibrillation, smoking, obesity, low physical activity, heavy alcohol intake, psychosocial stress, and depression.

Chronic Migraine and stroke risk 
Migraines have not been shown to cause stroke, but a person who has migraine with aura (sensory disturbances such as seeing zig-zag lines and sparkling/shimmering spots, or tingling in the face or hands) is at a very slightly higher risk of stroke in his/her lifetime compared to those without migraine. 

However, the overall risk of stroke linked to migraine is still very low, and a person is far more likely to have a stroke because of other risk factors like smoking and high blood pressure. 

2. Posted by T*************
I am often waken up by headache in the midst of the night (sometimes across my forehead, sometimes at right side if my head) but my headache will be gone in about 30 mins after I take panadol extra and switch off my ceiling fan.  Should I be concerned that this is sign of stroke?

Answered by Dr Sumit :
Hi T*************,
Headaches can sometimes be a sign of a stroke. Headaches that are brought on by strokes are known as thunderclap headaches that often start suddenly and are intense, with patients describing them as ‘the worst headache in your life’. 

Headaches that occur with a stroke typically occur with other classic stroke symptoms, like face drooping on one side, arm weakness and slurred or confused speech. 
Strokes are a medical emergency. If you experience any stroke symptoms, including a headache that is sudden and severe, call 995 immediately.
Unfortunately, I am unable to diagnose the cause of your headaches through this platform. 
Please consider consulting your family doctor about your headaches.

3. Posted K*************
Sometime, in the mid of my sleep, i would hear wind blowing in both of my ears. Is it the sign of stroke?

Answered by Dr Sumit :
Hi K*************,
The signs and symptoms of stroke vary from person to person, but usually begin suddenly. 
To recognise a stroke, think FAST:
F – Face drooping, uneven smile.
A – Arm weakness on one side of the body.
S – speech difficulty and difficulty understanding speech.
T – if a person has any of these symptoms, call 995 immediately as time is of the essence.

A stroke may also cause sudden onset of:
◦Numbness on one side of the body
◦Loss of balance or incoordination
◦Double vision, difficulty seeing with one or both eyes 
◦Inability to write or manage fine hand movements
◦Severe headache (worst headache of your life).

4. Posted by f**********@hotmail.com
My father was on Ticlopidine for IHD for more than 20 years. He was not on aspirin due to his drug allergy. Recently he had a stroke and the GM doctor changed his blood thinner to Clopidogrel. Is Clopidogrel a more effective blood thinner in preventing stroke, or a stronger blood thinner should be used?

Answered by Dr Sumit :
Dear ********,
Ticlopidine, clopidogrel and asprin are effective antiplatelet agents and are useful in the prevention of stroke. 

The decision of which antiplatelet medication to prescribe depends on several factors. In your father’s case, asprin is not an option due to his drug allergy and he suffered a stroke despite being on ticlopidine. To reduce your father’s risk of having another stroke, his medication was likely therefore changed to clopidogrel which has proven to be safe and effective in long-term trials.

5. Posted by A***********
Hi Dr,
My age is 72 years. Hypertension 40 years. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy since around 2020. Alcohol septal ablation 2012. Recurrent A F since 2010. Persistent A F since 3 years ago.on Xarelto 20 mg plus bisoprolol. C T coronary angiography lan 2020 showed 50 -70% block proximal L A D and first main branch. Expected to get nuclear myocardial perfusion test and may be followed by angiography and angioplasty. 

My questions are: 
1.Will they stop xarelto?
2.What is my stroke risk?
3.How should I proceed?

Answered by Dr Sumit :
Hi A***********,
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a heart rhythm disorder with irregular heartbeat. Patients with AF are at risk of developing blood clots in the heart, which can lead to ischemic stroke. 

AF makes you five times more likely to have a stroke. If you’re diagnosed with AF, you’ll have an individual stroke risk assessment to make sure you get the right treatment and advice for you. 
Anticoagulant drugs, also known as blood thinners, can prevent blood clots from forming and are commonly used in patients with AF – but you need to know your stroke risk first before starting anticoagulation.

With regard to your health and medication (XARELTO - Rivaroxaban) specific question, I suggest you discuss this with your cardiologist. XARELTO may need to be stopped, if possible for one or more days before any surgery or medical/dental procedure if there is high risk of bleeding. Do not stop taking XARELTO without first talking to the doctor who prescribed it to you, as stopping XARELTO increases your risk of having a stroke.

6. Posted by K******
Hi Dr, 
Would taking readings from a good quality smart device with features such as, artery check, SpO2 and heart rate monitor, etc., be useful for providing alert to an impending heart attack or stroke?

Answered by Dr Sumit :
Hi K******,
The number of wearable devices has exploded in the past five years. But evidence about their accuracy and cost effectiveness is lacking. A major vulnerability of the wearable devices is their susceptibility to motion artefacts, and changes in temperature, hair, skin colour, and tattoos.

Evidence supports the use of wearable devices in cardiovascular risk assessment and cardiovascular disease prevention, diagnosis and management, but large, well-designed trials are needed to establish their advantages. 

The smart watch, like other popular smartphone–linked ECG devices, may alert the user about an irregular heartbeat, but not all irregularities are dangerous. If someone with an occasional abnormal rhythm that would never have caused a stroke undergoes an extensive work-up or is put on a blood thinner, the risk of a dangerous bleed or other harm outweighs the benefits of potentially preventing a stroke. 

Also, even if someone with a suspected heart attack was able to capture successfully all nine ECG readings, the results would still need to be interpreted by a physician. So for now, the advice for the general public remains the same, "If you have chest pain or symptoms of stroke, call 995 immediately – do not waste precious time fiddling with your smart watch."

7. Posted by K**********
Hi Dr,
I am 78 years old, a little overweight, non-smoker, social drinker occasionally and take medication to prevent High BP, Heart attack and Stroke. I maintain a healthy lifestyle. I love travelling overseas in Asia. 
In last 12 years or so, I had 3 mini strokes. The last one was a week at SKH where I was admitted for severe abdominal pain. 
My questions are: 
1.What are the possibilities of having a full blown stroke, and 
2.What can be done to minimise it?
Thanks in advance.

Answered by Dr Sumit :
Hi K**********,

Transient ischaemic stroke (TIA), often called a mini stroke, may be a warning stroke. It causes symptoms similar to stroke but they last for a short period of time (often a few minutes), and does not cause permanent damage.    

About 1 in 3 people who have had a TIA will eventually have a stroke, with about half occurring within a year after the TIA. A TIA can serve as both a warning of a future stroke and an opportunity to prevent it. Prompt evaluation and identification of potentially treatable conditions may help you prevent a stroke.

The risk of recurrent stroke or TIA is high but can be mitigated with appropriate secondary stroke prevention, such as:

◦Seeking treatment and being compliant to treatment if you have any of these conditions: high blood pressure, diabetes and atrial fibrillation. This will reduce the risk of getting a stroke.
◦Attending medical appointment as advised & taking medications as prescribed.
◦Having a healthy lifestyle.
◦Stopping smoking. This reduces your risk of a TIA or a stroke.
◦Limiting alcohol intake to no more than 2 standard drinks​ per day.
◦Losing weight if you are overweight. Aim to maintain healthy weight range. Keep your BMI at 18.5- 22.9kg/m2s.
◦Eating a healthy diet. This means to fill 1/2 of your plate with fruits and vegetables, ¼ with whole grains and ¼ with meat and others.    
◦Exercising for 150 minutes per week. If you have not been exercising regularly, check with your doctor before you start an exercise programme.

8. Posted by W*********
Hi Dr,
My MRI 10 years ago shows some low density accumulation up to 50% at first diagonal branch of my Left Anterior Descending vessel. I have been taking medications to control my blood pressure and cholesterol. They are within normal range now, but I wonder what other tests should I do or whether by pass or other procedure should be carried out to prevent risk of complete blockage or stroke? Thank you!

Answered by Dr Sumit :
Hi W*********,
Your question is more appropriate for a heart specialist to answer as you have likely had cardiac MRI.
For stroke prevention, my suggestion would be to have a healthy lifestyle, take your prescribed medicines and attend your medical appointments or screening regularly.

9. Posted by A***
Hi Dr,
Since deficiency of protein C can cause CVT and only anti-coagulation drugs can treat it. My question is: Can we treat the deficiency of protein C instead so that when you have enough protein C, CVT will less lightly to occur and you will not need to take anti-coagulation drugs for life.

Answered by Dr Sumit :
Hi A***, 
Protein C deficiency is a rare but serious condition in which patients have a higher propensity to develop disseminated intravascular coagulation or venous thromboembolism, which causes blood clots to form in the veins, and these may comprise the initial presentation of the disease. 

There are few standardised guidelines for the treatment of protein C deficiency. Newborns presenting with severe protein C deficiency are treated with protein concentrate replacement. Anticoagulation treatments are also an option. Protein C replacement can be costly, so anticoagulation therapies are usually used for managing problems that can arise such as blood clots in veins.

10. Posted by S*****
Dear Dr,
What are chances of someone surviving "haemorrhagic stroke" or "brain haemorrhage". Is Vasculitis the same as the above?

Answered by Dr Sumit :
Dear S*****,
Although haemorrhagic strokes can be deadly, around 4 in 5 people who have had a haemorrhagic stroke survive, according to the National Stroke Registry 2019. How quickly a person receives treatment and how well they follow the treatment also has a lot to do with how much longer they will live. The sooner treatment is received, the longer the person are likely to live. Similarly, adhering to the lifestyle changes and prescribed therapies can increase life expectancy after the stroke.

Vasculitis is a general term for several conditions that cause inflammation in your blood vessels. It can make blood vessels weak, stretched, bigger, or narrower and some types of vasculitis can cause strokes, headaches, seizures.

11. Question by c******
Dear Dr, my dad, who is 67 years old, recently had symptoms of what I think is a TIA (dizziness, loss of balance, momentary loss of vision in an eye). I’m concerned that he may develop stroke later on, just like his dad (my grand dad). His doctor has already put him on high blood pressure medication. He is also on atorvastatin since June last year. Will these medications help delay the onset or even prevent stroke? What else can we do to prevent stroke, given that he’s quite stubborn when it comes to changing his diet?

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Hi C******,
The symptoms you mentioned – particularly the transient loss of vision in 1 eye – are quite concerning. You are right in thinking it may be a stroke symptom. I suggest you bring your father to see a doctor for further evaluation, soon. 

Hypertension which your father has is well known as one of the major risks for developing a stroke. It is good that he is already on treatment, but if he has a transient stroke he very likely needs more than just anti-hypertensives and statins. The doctor you bring him to should be able to tailor a treatment regime based on the risk factors found after assessment.
Wishing you the best.

12. Question by d******
Dear Doctor,
I noticed that my parents, who both have high cholesterol, do not like to be advised on what to eat. I’ve advised that them it’s not good to eat fried foods or eat out every day but they think it’s ok because they’re taking their cholesterol medication religiously. Is this true? Can you please share what types of foods are good to prevent stroke? How many times can they still eat fried chicken a week? And what kind of exercises they can do to prevent stroke? They’re both in their 60s and mobile.

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Dear d******,
Thank you for your questions. We understand the concerns one might have for our parents and how difficult it can be to change their beliefs. Our advice is that cholesterol pills is not an excuse for dietary indiscretion.

Dietary advice can be difficult to give over a forum like this, but let us point you to health promotion board’s “My Healthy Plate”. There is some useful information there.  https://www.healthxchange.sg/food-nutrition/food-tips/healthy-eating-what-should-you-put-on-plate

How many times a week can they eat fried chicken ? Well that’s difficult to answer.

In general, the principle of a healthy is not to try to determine the maximum amount of unhealthy food one can have without incurring health “penalties”, like stroke or heart attacks and then indulge that limit; but to be as healthy as possible.

In addition, consider also other lifestyle changes like regular exercise which has been shown consistently to reduce the risks of both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

13. Question by A**
I am a woman in my early 30s. In my early 20s, I discovered I had high cholesterol. A doctor I saw said it was unusual for a young person like me to have high cholesterol, but he also said he thought it was not necessary to start medications yet because of my young age, as cholesterol takes years to ‘harden’. I don’t think it’s due to my diet as I do make a conscious effort to avoid fried and fatty foods, except for the occasional indulgence. It seems that it is genetically inherent as my mother was tested and it was found that her body naturally overproduces cholesterol. She had a mild stroke some years ago and has been on statins ever since. She is currently in her late 50s.

My question is: When would you recommend I start seeing a doctor to start on medication? What side effects would these medications have on a young person like me? I also have rheumatoid arthritis and currently trying to conceive. I am wary of having to take so many drugs, but I am also quite concerned after my mother’s brush with stroke. What do you think of more ‘natural’ remedies like red yeast rice (e.g. Hypocol)? 

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Dear A**,
Thank you for sharing your problems; it does seem to be a quite a handful. 
You are right, there are no medications with absolutely no side effects. Doctors usually make recommendations on statin treatment after a careful consideration of risks and benefits. These are amplified especially during pregnancy and the potential effects on the fetus.

Our suggestion is that you talk this through with your family practitioner and rheumatologist. Do schedule regular discussions as the decision to start or stop certain medications can vary according to disease activity (rheumatoid arthritis in your case) and change as we progress through our life stages.  

With regards to “natural” remedies, from what has been published in medical journals, red yeast rice products have been shown to contain lovastatin. This may mean that it may not be entirely free from statin side effects.

14. Question by c******
Dear Dr, 
I suffered from a transient stroke a few years ago. Ever since then, my body doesn’t feel the same. It has been years but my one of my arms still feels numb occasionally. However when I go to the A&E, they admit me to run tests, but they cannot find anything wrong. I’m not sure if the numbness is linked to stroke or could be linked to the other problems that I have? I have spondylitis as well as poor blood circulation due to varicose veins.

What is the most common/obvious symptom that points to stroke? For your info, I am now in my early 60’s. Thank you in advance.

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Dear C******,
Thank you for your questions. After a transient ischemic attack / stroke, it is common for people to be worried or feel anxious about it recurring. You did the right thing going to A&E to have your symptoms examined and investigated. It is quite reassuring that they did not find any symptoms of a recurrent stroke. 

There are a number of conditions which could cause intermittent numbness in your arm.  The best way to find the problem is to consult a doctor. A neurologist may be able to help you with this.

Not all cases of stroke are easily recognisable, especially by lay persons. However, most can be picked up using the F.A.S.T method.
A “Spot a Stroke” video explaining F.A.S.T and more information about stroke can be found in the links below. Please share them with your friends.

15. Question by h*********
I previously had a scare where someone just fainted in front of me. I called the ambulance and lucky they came fast. But I remember I was at a loss of what to do. If someone has a stroke in front of you, what should I do to help while waiting for the ambulance? 

Lie flat or sideways? Sit up if they awaken? Give them a drink or not? Any kind of Food? Massage the head or body or leave alone? Talk to them to keep them alert or let them rest?  I think many others would like to know too! Thanks 

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Hi h*********,
Thank you for being a good Samaritan, and for trying to learn more!
Stroke patients are slightly different from those who have loss of consciousness.
Lying down does not help them as much as it does those who have fainted, though we should definitely get them somewhere safe while waiting for the ambulance. Many of them also develop swallowing problems as a result of the stroke, so giving food or drink may cause them to choke. 

Best thing to do is to get them seated somewhere safe – so they do not fall over and wait for help to arrive. Talking to them in the meantime can help keep them calm in the meantime. 

You can also look at the reply above to learn how to identify a stroke.

16. Question by r*****
My mother in law suffered a stroke recently and is still in hospital waiting to be discharged. The physiotherapist has started to come in and send her for some therapy. My mum in law says it’s very pain and complains. So we asked the physiotherapist to stop.  The physio day’s she’s just trying to help. 

My question is: how soon after the incident should a person start physio / rehab or whatever? I’m torn between listening to my mum versus the professional.  What kind of gentle or ‘introductory’ rehab might help the elderly ease into it better? 

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Hi R*****,
Thank you for your question and sorry to hear about your mother in law.

Rehabilitation is an integral part of stroke treatment and is important for recovery of function. Early rehab within 2-3 days of admission is quite standard although, the optimal time to initiate rehabilitation is not clear from medical literature. 

Each person’s rehabilitation “prescription” is different and takes into account their baseline function and the deficits (problems) caused by the stroke. So it is not a general exercise program based on their ages.

Follow up question by r*****
The doctor also told us that he put her on low dose paracetamol or aspirin - I can’t remember- as it helps thin the blood.  Which is correct? Are they the same thing? 

Is this also good for the heart in low doses if I just want to ‘prevent’ stroke for my dad who also has diabetes and a heart condition? 

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
The medication should be aspirin – it is a common medication used for prevention after someone had previous stroke. This however carries with it bleeding risks and is hence not usually given to people who have not had a prior stroke or heart attack. The risks of bleeding may be higher than the risks of stroke or heart attack for these people.

17. Question by g*******
Hi Dr,  my father is 2 years post ischaemic stroke and all is good except that he has double vision (diplopia). Can this problem be treated? Or will it eventually lead to sight loss?
Appreciate your advice. Thank you.

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Hi g*******, 
Thank you for your question. Stroke does sometimes cause double vision. When it does, it is usually due to misalignment of the visual axes. i.e. one eye is looking straight at an object while the other is looking slightly off, causing 2 images to form.

Stroke typically causes sudden damage to brain tissues. Unless there is another repeat stroke, the damage does not usually progress over time. Recovery also tends to max out in about 6 months to 1 year. If your father is still having diplopia, the first step would be to confirm that this is due to misalignment of the visual axes with a doctor. Once that is done, specially made prisms fitted over spectacles can help in a number of cases.

18. Question by s*******
Hi Doctor. 1 year post stroke my aunt, who is 50 this year, is experiencing intermittent pins and needles in her fingers, hot and cold sensations on the right side of her body, sometimes even lose sensation in her left arm. How can she better cope with this problem? If there is medication to take, what are some side effects she should expect? Thank you for your time. :)

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Dear s*******,
Thank you for your question. It is known that a small number of patients do suffer from post stroke pain syndromes, i.e. they get pain and discomfort on the side affected by the stroke during the recovery phase. 

However it is difficult to advise on your aunt’s problem without seeing her. It should be properly diagnosed by a physician. Do bring her to a neurologist to have it looked at.

19. Question by m*****
Hi Dr, my 60-year-old father had a stroke in August 2016 and was discharged in December. He suffers from aphasia but thankfully has regained functional use of all limbs. However, he complains of giddy spells on and off. It happens no matter how many hours he sleep. May I know if this is normal? What can he do about these giddy spells? Thank you.

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Dear m*****,
So sorry to hear about your father’s stroke. Though he still has some aphasia, it’s great to hear he has regained the use of his limbs. 

Giddy spells in general are quite non-specific complaints and can be caused by many different reasons. A common cause in stroke patients would be a sense of unsteadiness due to residual weakness after the stroke. As your father had aphasia, he may also have some problems describing his symptoms in more detail.

A family physician should be able to help get you get some idea on what may be causing his giddy spells and recommend some initial investigations and treatment. 

20. Question by L*****
Dear Dr, hypertension and stroke run very strongly in my family. I heard about a simple, non-invasive screening test, the carotid ultrasound. I think this test can effectively prevent a lot of suffering and medical expense, to individuals and to the nation, in the long run. Can this test be requested at Govt polyclinics, at least for high-risk patients like myself? And can we work on making this test widely available in Singapore?

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Dear L*****,
Thank you for the post. I’m glad you are taking charge of maintaining your health and finding ways to manage your risks. The answer to your question about screening though is rather lengthy, so I will break it into parts and try to explain.

You are right in saying that the carotid ultrasound is a relatively simple and indeed non-invasive test which can be used to detect carotid stenosis. The test also readily available in restructured hospitals in Singapore. 

To be sure, health screening comes under the purview of the Ministry of Health (MOH) and is beyond my level. There are however epidemiologic reasons that may help us understand why carotid ultrasound screening is not within our local  recommendations. 

To simplify what is actually a rather complicated matter, we can start our discussion from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. In 2014 they issued a recommendation where they actually advised against screening for carotid stenosis in the general population. 

There were several reasons for this,  among which was that the U.S prevalence of this condition is low – 0.5-1%. In Asian populations like Singapore, this condition affects even fewer people. 

In addition, even if carotid stenosis is found, the treatment is generally to control cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes and cholesterol which are already in our MOH recommendations. So there is little benefit in finding out, and I cannot recommend that everyone goes for the test.

That is not to say that doctors cannot make the decision to recommend carotid ultrasound screening for a patient based on the person’s unique risks, examination findings and circumstances. 

These patients may still benefit from having this screening test done; it is just that for the majority of people it does not help. 

Hope this makes the situation clearer.

21. Question by M**
Dear Dr, I am in my mid-60s and am on statin medication to manage cholesterol issue. I also have breathlessness if I climb up overhead bridge briskly and therefore am on seretide inhaler.  

I live alone in a quiet condo where access to the lift lobby (and therefore to my apartment) is via security access cards (ie, NO security guard on 24/7 basis). Increasingly, in Singapore's tight labour market where take-up rate for security guard jobs is dismal, most condos have increasingly tapped into CCTV/mechanical devices for estate security.  

In the event that I should have any of the FAS symptions and I telephone 995, I'd like to know if:  

(a) I should take an aspirin pronto - would that help in any way or would it exacerbate the risks because there may be different health conditions?  

(b) I should immediately take the lift to get down to the condo's waiting porch area that would be easily accessible to the ambulance staff upon arrival and just sit there to wait?  

(c) In the event that I should lose consciousness, do you know if all SCDF ambulance staff are equipped and trained to gain urgent access (eg, by de-magnetizing the lift lobby glass door or by smashing it) bearing in mind that every second counts in saving lives and/or minimizing the extent of damage for more likely full recovery? 

Thank you 

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Dear M**,
Unfortunatelt, we cannot advise on the exact capacities on the SCDF ambulances with regards to gaining access through physical barriers. We suspect this may be limited to the fire department in SCDF. So if possible do try to get to somewhere safe and accessible. 

With regards to the question about aspirin, approximately 20% of strokes in Singapore are caused by bleeding rather than an obstruction in the blood vessel so we suggest not taking, especially emergency departments are only minutes away for most locations in Singapore. 

22. Question by E**
Dear Doctor
Generally how many years of life span can a stroke patient survive ?

Answered by the Department of Neurology, NNI:
Dear E**,
Thank you for this question. It is a difficult one to answer though.
For ischemic stroke (stroke caused by blood vessel obstruction) patients, the mortality in 1 year approximately 20% from the latest figures from the Singapore stroke registry. Much depends on the age of the person when their stroke occurred, and older people tending to do worse than younger ones.

Though it is well known that stroke survivors have increased mortality in the longer term compared with the rest of the population from studies that have followed them up for up to 20 years; the cause of this is uncertain and medical knowledge of this is not precise enough for doctors to prognosticate life expectancy for most patients after a stroke.

About Dr Sumit Kumar Sonu

Dr Sumit Kumar Sonu is Associate Consultant, Department of Neurology at the National Neuroscience Institute (SGH Campus). He joined the SingHealth Internal Medicine Residency and subsequently completed his Senior Residency in Neurology in 2021.

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