​Continued from previous page.

Professor Lim Soon Thye, Deputy Medical Director (Clinical) and Senior Consultant of the Division of Medical Oncology at National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS), a member of the SingHealth group, shares on the types and diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Hodgkin’s lymphoma vs non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Lymphoma cancer can be broadly divided into two categories:

  • Hodgkin’s lymphoma (also called Hodgkin’s disease) and
  • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Patients diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma often have large abnormal cells called Reed-Sternberg cells in their lymph nodes. This disease is highly curable and accounts for about 10 per cent of all lymphoma cases.

Although lymphoma cancer can occur at any age, Hodgkin’s disease is most prevalent in two particular age groups:

  • People between 15 and 40 years of age
  • People aged 55 years and above

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is more common. There are mainly two types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma:

  • Aggressive (high grade): Tends to grow and spread quickly and cause severe symptoms. If left untreated, it can be fatal within a few months or sooner
  • Slow-growing (low-grade): Tends to grow and spread slowly and cause few symptoms. It is harder to treat and carries a higher risk of relapse

The risk of developing non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma increases with age, with most patients being diagnosed in their 60s.

Diagnosis of lymphoma

A common symptom of lymphoma cancer is the painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm or groin. When this is accompanied by a persistent fever, drenching sweats or unexplained weight loss, it is best to consult a doctor immediately.

“Lymphoma is diagnosed with a biopsy. Once the lymphoma is confirmed, additional scans, a bone marrow biopsy and blood tests may be needed to see how widespread the cancer is. Heart function tests may also be required to see if a patient is fit for lymphoma treatment,” says Prof Lim.

Here’s a closer look at some of the tests and procedures used to diagnose lymphoma cancer:

  • Physical exam: Your doctor will check for swollen lymph nodes as well as an enlarged spleen or liver
  • Blood tests: Used to test blood cell, kidney and liver performance. They can also detect lactase dehydrogenase (LDH), a chemical associated with the aggressive form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Bone marrow biopsy: Bone marrow samples are usually taken from the hip and examined for abnormal B or T cells

If the lymphoma is confirmed, it is then classified according to its stage, Stage 1 being the earliest phase while Stage IV is the disease at its most widespread.

Read on to learn about the treatment options available for lymphoma.

See the previous page to find out what are the common symptoms of lymphoma

Ref: K21

Check out our other articles on cancer:

Top 10 Cancers in Singapore (for Men and Women)

Cancer Causes: Myths and Facts

Top Cancer Prevention Foods

Cancer Diet: Top Foods to Eat and Avoid for Cancer Treatment